The charger is a small molded unit
that probably doesn't supply more than an amp and this circuit would
have trouble with much more. No current limit is provided by this
circuit - it relies on the charger for that. The circuit could be
modified to provide more current by lowering the 470 and 330 ohm
resistors in the 5195's base circuit and the 10k in the collector
of the 4401. A relay could also be used in place of the pass transistor.
Here is how it works: When the battery voltage is low, the voltage
at the base of the first 2N4401 (on the right) is not sufficient
to turn it on and the second 2N4401 is biased on by the 10k resistor.
The power transistor is turned on and the LED lights. When the battery
is fully charged the voltage will exceed a somewhat arbitrary "overvoltage"
value slightly below 14 volts and the regulator will switch off.
The 470k feedback resistor gives the circuit some hysterisis so
that it will not turn back on until the battery voltage drops below
about 13.5 volts. When the battery is nearing full charge the light
will begin to flash on and off and after a few hours the light will
only come on occasionally. This occasional overvoltage jolt sure
seems to keep the batteries in great shape.
Here is an experimental (and simple!) regulator for alternator